Mixture of Avermectin B1a and Avermectin B1b
(2aE,4E,5'S,6S,6'R,7S,8E,11R,13S,15S,17aR,20R,20aR,20bS)-20,20b-dihydroxy-5',6,8,19-tetramethyl-6'-[(1S)-1-methylpropyl]-17-oxo-5',6,6',10,11,14,15,17,17a,20,20a,20b-dodecahydro-2H,7H-spiro[11,15-methanofuro[4,3,2-pq][2,6]benzodioxacyclooctadecine-13,2'-pyran]-7-yl 2,6-dideoxy-4-O-(2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-alpha-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-alpha-L-arabino-hexopyranoside - (2aE,4E,5'S,6S,6'R,7S,8E,11R,13S,15S,17aR,20R,20aR,20bS)-20,20b-dihydroxy-5',6,8,19-tetramethyl-6'-(1-methylethyl)-17-oxo-5',6,6',10,11,14,15,17,17a,20,20a,20b-dodecahydro-2H,7H-spiro[11,15-methanofuro[4,3,2-pq][2,6]benzodioxacyclooctadecine-13,2'-pyran]-7-yl 2,6-dideoxy-4-O-(2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-alpha-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-alpha-L-arabino-hexopyranoside (1:1)
(10E,14E,16E,22Z)-(1R,4S,5'S,6S,6'R,8R,12S,13S,20R,21R,24S)-6'-[(S)-sec-butyl]-21,24-dihydroxy-5',11,13,22-tetramethyl-2-oxo-3,7,19-trioxatetracyclo[188.8.131.52,8.020,24]pentacosa-10,14,16,22-tetraene-6-spiro-2'-(5',6'-dihydro-2'H-pyran)-12-yl 2,6-dideoxy-4-O-(2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-a-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-a-L-arabino-hexopyranoside (i) mixture with (10E,14E,16E,22Z)-(1R,4S,5'S,6S,6'R,8R,12S,13S,20R,21R,24S)-21,24-dihydroxy-6'-isopropyl-5',11,13,22-tetramethyl-2-oxo-3,7,19-trioxatetracyclo[184.108.40.206,8.020,24]pentacosa-10,14,16,22-tetraene-6-spiro-2'-(5',6'-dihydro-2'H-pyran)-12-yl 2,6-dideoxy-4-O-(2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methyl-a-L-arabino-hexopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-a-L-arabino-hexopyranoside (ii) (4:1)
5-O-demethylavermectin A1a (i) mixture with 5-O-demethyl-25-de(1-methylpropyl)-25-(1-methylethyl)avermectin A1a (ii)
|Boling Point||940.9°C at 760 mmHg|
|Vapor Presure||0mmHg at 25°C|
|Use||It has a killing effect on nematodes, insects and mites, and is used to treat nematode, mite and parasitic insect diseases of livestock and poultry.|
abamectin is a class of sixteen-membered macrolide compounds with insecticidal, acaricidal and nematicidal activities, which was first developed by damura, et al, produced by Streptomyces avermiillis fermentation of Streptomyces avelobilis in Streptomyces.
7051 strain was isolated and screened from the soil of Jieyang, Guangdong province, developed by Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute at the end of the 20th century in China. After identification, it was proved that the strain and S. Avermiillis Ma-8460 is similar and has the same chemical structure as Avermectin. In 1993, the New Technology Development Corporation of Beijing Agricultural University established the research and production and development of this medicine.
Since the introduction of abamectin into the pesticide market in China in 1991, Avermectin pesticide has played an important role in the pest control system in China.
since 2007, the extensive promotion of avermectin in rice has brought unlimited potential to avermectin products. Avix control of rice stem borer, Rice longitudinal excellent performance, become a substitute for highly toxic pesticides, the new favorite. At the same time, the improvement of pest resistance, the continuous increase of the amount of vitamin A, the low price between the various manufacturers and the suppression of the market.
08 years, the amount of Avi has risen sharply, which manufacturers on Avi which manufacturers can sell a lot more goods. In 2009, the rice pest was light, and the inventory of each manufacturer was very large. The inventory of Avi became a hidden danger of everyone's heart pain. In 2010, Avi's sales fell into confusion, I do not know whether to continue to lower prices or find another way. In 2011, the high-end market of rice area has been basically occupied by foreign products with product set and promotion abroad.
In the second quarter of 2012, the market began to warm up, and the price rose sharply. By the end of June of 2012, the increase had reached more than 40%. In particular, after the ointment is banned, due to the lack of inventory of avermectin refined powder, the market demand continues to increase, and the price rises rapidly. The price of the salt is also rising, and the price is sometimes out of stock.
Avermectin has gastric toxicity and contact killing effect on mites and insects, and cannot kill eggs. The mechanism of action differs from that of common insecticides in that it interferes with neurophysiological activities and stimulates the release of gamma;-aminobutyric acid, which has an inhibitory effect on nerve conduction in arthropods. Mites, nymphs and insect larvae and avermectin after contact with the symptoms of paralysis, inactivity, not feeding, 2 to 4 days after death. Because it does not cause rapid dehydration of insects, Avermectin has a slower lethal effect. Avermectin has direct contact killing effect on predatory insects and parasitic natural enemies, but the damage to beneficial insects is very small because of the less residue on the surface of plants. Abamectin in the soil adsorption in the soil will not move, and the microbial decomposition, and thus no accumulation in the environment, can be used as a component of the integrated control. The preparation is easy to prepare, the preparation is poured into water and can be used with a little stirring, and it is safe for crops.
fermentation metabolites of Streptomyces avermiillis MA-4680 (I. E., NRRL-8165) strain isolated from soil samples by the Kitasat Institute in Japan.
rat acute oral LD50 is l0 mg/kg, mouse acute oral LD50 is 13 mg/kg, rabbit acute percutaneous LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg, rat acute percutaneous LD50 greater than 380 mg/kg, rat acute inhalation LC50 greater than 5.7 mg/L. No irritation to the skin, a slight irritation to the eyes. There was no teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effect on animals in the test dose. Three generations of rats reproductive test, no effect of the dose of 0.12 mg/kg/day. The two-year no effect dose in rats was 2 mg/kg/day. Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, Trout 96 hours LC50 for 3.6 μg/L, blue gill Bioux 96 hours LC509.6 μg/L. High toxicity to bees, oral LD50 0.009 μg/Head, LD50 0.002 μg/head, but the remaining LT50 in the leaf for 4 hours, the agents remaining on the leaf surface after 4 hours were of low toxicity to the bees. Low toxicity to birds, quail acute oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg, wild duck acute oral LD50 86.4 mg/kg.
The microbial source of insecticide and acaricide, the pests and mites to the stomach toxicity, and have a killing and weak fumigation effect, no absorption. Can be used for the control of vegetable leaf-eating pests such as cabbage, diamondback moth, leaf flies, the use of the dose of 11~22g/hmz. In the liquid to add paraffin oil can significantly improve the efficacy; Can control mites, the use of the dose of 5.6~28g/hm2; Control of boring pests such as cotton bollworm, tobacco, etc., with 1.8% emulsifiable concentrate 750~1500mL/hm2 water spray; 1.8% emulsifiable concentrate 750 ~ 1500mL/
hm2; The control of soil root knot nematode, 1.8% emulsifiable concentrate 9000 ~ 12000mL/hmz. It can also be used as an insect repellent for controlling parasites in livestock.
1, the prevention and control of diamondback moth, cabbage worm, in the young larval stage using 1000-1500 times 2% avermectin EC +1000 times 1% emamectin salt, can effectively control its damage, 14 days after the drug on the diamondback moth control effect is still up to 90%-95%, the control effect of cabbage insect can reach more than 95%.
2, control of Golden Moth, leaf moth, leaf fly, Liriomyza sativae and vegetable whitefly and other pests, with 1.8% -5000 times of avermectin EC +1000 times of high chlorine spray during egg hatching and larval onset, the control effect still reached more than 90% 7-10 days after administration.
3. To control Spodoptera exigua, with 1000 times 1.8% avermectin EC, 7-10 days after the drug control effect is still more than 90%.
4, prevention and control of fruit trees, vegetables, food and other crops of spider mites, mites, tea yellow mites and a variety of resistant aphids, using 1.8% -6000 times the avermectin emulsion spray.
5, the prevention and control of vegetable root knot nematode disease, according to the use of 500 per mu, the control effect of 80%-90%.
rat acute oral LD50 is 10 mg/kg, mouse acute oral LD50 is 13.6 mg/kg, rabbit acute percutaneous LD50 greater than 2000mg/kg. Aquatic organisms LC50 (96H, ug/L): Rainbow Trout 3.2, blue gill sunfish 9.6, shrimp 1.6, blue crab 153; Highly toxic to bees; acute oral LD50( mg/kg) for birds: 84.6 for wild ducks, more than 2000 for North American quails; The soil and water were rapidly degraded by microorganisms without bioaccumulation. The acute oral toxicity of avermectin is high, but because of its very low dosage, it is safe to humans and animals, and to the environment.
Avermectin should be packaged in a clean, dry, plastic-lined steel drum or cardboard drum with a net content of no more than 25kg per barrel. Avermectin emulsifiable concentrates shall be packed in brown glass, aluminium or fluoride bottles with inner plug and outer lid, with a net content of 50g (mL), 10og (mL), 250g (mL), 500g (mL) per bottle; calcium plastic box or corrugated box for outer packaging, the net content of each box should not exceed 15kg. Packages should be stored in a ventilated, dry warehouse. Storage and transportation should be strictly protected against moisture and sun exposure, and should not be mixed with food, seeds and feed, avoid contact with skin and eyes, and prevent inhalation from mouth and nose.
toxic symptoms: early symptoms of dilated pupils, movement disorders, muscle tremors, serious lead to Vomit.
emergency treatment: immediately induce vomiting and give the patient ipecac syrup or ephedrine, but do not give Coma patients emetic or anything. Rescue to avoid the use of patients to enhance the activity of & gamma;-Aminobutyric acid drugs, such as barbiturate, valproic acid.
1, there should be Protection Measure, wear a mask, etc.
2, high toxicity to fish, should avoid polluting water sources and ponds. High toxicity to Silkworm, mulberry leaf spray after 40 days and obvious poison killing silkworm effect. Toxic to bees, do not apply in the flowering period.
3, can not be mixed with alkaline pesticides.
4, Summer Time at noon do not spray.
5. The last application was 20 days from the harvest period.
6, the drug has no effect of internal absorption, spraying should pay attention to spray evenly, carefully.
7, storage of this product should be away from high temperature and fire.
8, to avoid the drug and skin contact or splash into the eyes, in case of this situation immediately rinse with water, and ask a doctor for treatment.
|biopesticide||avermectin is a kind of insecticidal, acaricidal, acaricidal, which was first developed by Okamura et al., North University, Japan, and Merck Company, USA, nematicidal sixteen-membered macrolide compounds produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces griseus strep myces avermiillis in Streptomyces. Natural avermectin contains 8 components, there are mainly 4 kinds of A1a, A2a, B1a and B2a, the total content is more than or equal to 80%; The corresponding 4 smaller proportion of the homolog is A1b, a2b, B1b and B2B, the total content of less than 20%. At present, abamectin is used as the main insecticidal component (Avermectin B1a + B1b, in which B1a is not less than 90% and B1b is not more than 5%), and the content of B1a is used as the standard. Since the introduction of abamectin into the pesticide market in China in 1991, abamectin pesticide has played an important role in the pest control system in China. Avermectin in China currently has more than 10 enterprises to produce, the current market of avermectin series of pesticides are avermectin, ivermectin and emamectin benzoate. In China, 7051 strains were isolated and screened from the soil of Jieyang city, Guangdong province, which were developed by Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute at the end of the 20th century. Avermiillis Ma-8460 is similar and has the same chemical structure as abamectin. In 1993, the New Technology Development Corporation of Beijing Agricultural University established the research and production and development of this medicine. Avermectin is a new type of antibiotics, which has the characteristics of novel structure and dual-use in farm and livestock. With the improvement of people's living standards and the call for green food, biological pesticides are very popular in the current pesticide market. Authorities predict that the 21st century will be the century of biological pesticides. It is reported that sales of biopesticides in Europe will rise from US $0.1 billion in 1997 to US $0.169 billion in. Abamectin is the most popular and competitive new product in the current bio-pesticide market.|
|drug substance|| avermectin also known as afutin, 7051 insecticidal, insect mite light, green vegetable, the original medicine is white or yellow-white crystal powder, the effective ingredient content of 75% ~ 80%, specific gravity 1.16, melting point 155~157 ℃, vapor pressure 2 × 10-7pa, solubility of 7.8 μg/L in water at 21 ℃, 100 mg/ml in acetone, 20 mg/ml in ethanol, 19.5 mg/ml in methanol, 10 mg/ml in chloroform, 6 mg/ml in cyclohexane, 70 mg/ml in isopropanol, kerosene 0.5 mg/ml, toluene 350 mg/ml. It is not easy to decompose at room temperature, and there is no decomposition phenomenon in the solution of pH6 ~ 9 at 25.
The appearance of the preparation is light brown liquid, and the storage stability at room temperature is more than 2 years.
Toxicity: According to Chinese pesticide toxicity grading standards, abamectin is a highly toxic insecticide. The acute oral LD50 of the original drug rat is l0 mg/kg, the acute oral LD50 of the mouse is 13 mg/kg, and the acute percutaneous LD50 of the rabbit is greater than 2000 mg/kg, rat acute percutaneous LD50 greater than 380 mg/kg, rat acute inhalation LC50 greater than 5.7 mg/L. No irritation to the skin, a slight irritation to the eyes. There was no teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effect on animals in the test dose. Three generations of rats reproductive test, no effect of the dose of 0.12 mg/kg/day. The two-year no effect dose in rats was 2 mg/kg/day. Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, Trout 96 hours LC50 for 3.6 μg/L, blue gill Bioux 96 hours LC509.6 μg/L. High toxicity to bees, oral LD50 0.009 μg/Head, LD50 0.002 μg/head, but the remaining LT50 in the leaf for 4 hours, the agents remaining on the leaf surface after 4 hours were of low toxicity to the bees. Low toxicity to birds, quail acute oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg, wild duck acute oral LD50 86.4 mg/kg.
Formulation the rat acute oral LD50 was 650 mg/kg and the rabbit acute percutaneous LD50 was greater than 2000 mg/kg. The LC50 for acute inhalation in rats was 1.1 mg/L. Has a stimulating effect on the eyes and skin.
Formulation 1.8% avermectin EC (18g of active ingredient per liter)
|function characteristics|| abamectin has gastric toxicity and contact killing effect on mites and insects, and cannot kill eggs. The mechanism of action differs from that of common insecticides in that it interferes with neurophysiological activities and stimulates the release of gamma;-aminobutyric acid, which has an inhibitory effect on nerve conduction in arthropods. Mites, nymphs and insect larvae and avermectin after contact with the symptoms of paralysis, inactivity, not feeding, 2 to 4 days after death. Because it does not cause rapid dehydration of insects, Avermectin has a slower lethal effect. Avermectin has direct contact killing effect on predatory insects and parasitic natural enemies, but the damage to beneficial insects is very small because of the less residue on the surface of plants. Abamectin in the soil adsorption in the soil will not move, and the microbial decomposition, and thus no accumulation in the environment, can be used as a component of the integrated control. The preparation is easy to prepare, and can be used by pouring the preparation into human water with a little stirring, which is also relatively safe for crops, and will not cause phytotoxicity when used according to the method described. Suitable for crops, vegetables, citrus, cotton, etc.
Control object: there are special effects on resistant pests, such as diamondback moth, leaf moth, Red Spider, etc.
Application technology: abamectin on mites and insects with stomach poison and contact killing effect, strong permeability, liquid spray into the plant leaf surface after the rapid infiltration of the mesophyll to form a large number of micro-capsule, adult mites, nymphs and insect larvae immediately after feeding and contact with the liquid paralysis symptoms, no activity, no feeding, 2 to 4 days after death. Abamectin is rarely used as a residual foliar agent, and is quickly decomposed into non-toxic substances, so it has little destruction of natural enemies. Avermectin had no ovicidal effect.
Avermectin for the prevention and control of red spiders, rust spiders and other mites with 1.8% avermectin 3000~5000 times liquid or per 100 liters of water plus 1.8% avermectin 20~33 ml (effective concentration of 3.6~6 mg/l). For the prevention and control of larvae of lepidoptera such as diamondback moth, spray with 1.8% avermectin 2000~3000 times liquid or 100 avermectin 33~50 ml (effective concentration 6~9 mg/l) per 1.8% liters of water. When the larvae were first hatched, the application effect was the best, and the addition of one of the dry parts of the vegetable oil could improve the efficacy.
Cotton Field prevention and control of Red Spider per mu with 1.8% avermectin emulsion 30~40 ml (0.54~0.72 grams of active ingredients), the effective period of up to 30 days.
|note||1. Abamectin was slow in killing insects and mites, and the peak of dead insects appeared 3 days after application. However, on the day of application, pests and harmful moths stopped feeding and damaging.
Avermectin is highly toxic to fish. Therefore, do not contaminate the river or pond with the drug solution during application, and do not apply the drug during honey harvesting.
|antiparasitic agents for poultry|| avermectin tablets
For the treatment of horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats and other poultry in vivo and in vitro a variety of nematodes and ticks, mites, fleas, lice, flies and so on.
Avermectin for large round nematodes (common round nematodes, horse round nematodes, edentulous round nematodes), roundworm (horse Ascaris), pinworm (horse sharp tail nematode), gastric worms (draecium Caenorhabditis elegans), small intestinal nematodes (Ehrlich, caudal), pulmonary nematodes (onchella elegans) such as the adult and fourth stage larvae were efficient (95%-100%).
To cattle, sheep, oral or subcutaneous injection of abamectin, to the blood of the nematode, the nematode, the nematode, the ancient worm, the worm nematode (including the worm), round nematode, the root nematode, the nematode, the fine neck nematode, the repellent rate of adult and fourth stage larvae of hairy head nematode, esophageal oral nematode, net tail nematode and sheep chabberts nematode was 97%-100%.
Internal or mixed oral administration, once dose:
1, horses, cattle, donkeys, mules, sheep: 1 tablet per 10kg weight.
2, pigs, foxes, dogs, cats: 1 tablet per 6kg body weight. Treatment of dog Demodex per 3kg body weight with this product 1 tablet, an interval of 7 days, with 5 times.
3, chicken, duck, goose, rabbit, pigeon: weight 6 ~ 8kg with this product 1 tablets.
|main analytical methods||high performance liquid chromatography|
|characteristics of avermectin series agents||1, broad insecticidal spectrum
At present, there are 84 kinds of abamectin insecticidal spectrum reported. China uses it to control pests with small body, many generations and easy to appear drug resistance, such as pear wood lice, cotton aphid, etc., and latent leaf pests such as liriomyza sativae, mites such as two spotted spider mites, tea orange spider mites, Hawthorn spider mites and host wide, feeding Miscellaneous pests such as diamondback moth.
2. Unique insecticidal mechanism
Abamectin is a nerve agent, the mechanism of which is to act on the GABAA receptor of the insect neuron synapse or the nerve muscle synapse, which interferes with the information transmission of the nerve endings in the insect body, that is, to stimulate the nerve to release the nerve transmission inhibitor & gamma;-aminobutyric acid (GA-BA), to promote the prolonged opening of the GABA gated chloride channel, and to activate the chloride channel, the influx of a large number of chloride ions causes the nerve membrane potential to be super, causing the nerve membrane to be in a state of inhibition, thus blocking the connection between the nerve endings and the muscle, and making the insect paralysis, refusal to feed and death. Because of its unique mechanism of action, it has no cross-resistance with commonly used agents. It has been reported that in addition to the GABA receptor-controlled chloride channels, abamectin can also affect other ligand-controlled chloride channels, for example, Ivermectin can induce an irreversible increase in membrane conduction of locust muscle fibers without GABAergic innervation.
|good stratification activity||layer transfer activity refers to that abamectin can penetrate into the leaf tissues of crops after spraying, form drug capsules in epidermal parenchyma cells, and store for a long time, so abamectin has a good sustained effect period. Because of its good layer-shifting activity, abamectin is highly effective against pests that are difficult to control with conventional agents, such as mites, leaf flies, lixioides, and other boring or sucking pests. Abamectin is easily degraded in soil and water, and is adsorbed by soil, without leaching, no residue, no environmental pollution; No accumulation and persistent residue in the organism, so avermectin should belong to pollution-free pesticides. Avermectins can also be broken down by soil microorganisms into derivatives with higher activity, such as insecticidal action against plant nematodes.|
|Current status and Countermeasures of avermectin resistance in organisms||There are many reports on the resistance and resistance mechanism of organisms to avermectin in foreign countries. In, Scott and Geoghiou first discovered that the anti-pyrethroid indoor selected Musca domestica strain (LPR) had 7.6-fold cross-resistance to abamectin, and later studies showed that this phenomenon was due to multifunctional oxidase (MFO). Is caused by increased metabolism and reduced epidermal permeability, and with reduced epidermal permeability as the main resistance mechanism, is highly recessive inheritance. In 1991, Gampos and Dybas found that the two spotted spider mites were resistant to abamectin, and their resistance was also related to epidermal penetration and oxidative metabolism, its resistance inheritance is autosomal incomplete recessive inheritance. Li tengwu and others on the diamondback moth resistance breeding study found that diamondback moth to abamectin resistance inheritance is autosomal incomplete recessive inheritance. argentine and Clark discovered the resistance of the potato beetle to Abamectin, the mechanism of which is also associated with multifunctional oxidases and carboxylesterases, the inheritance of which is similar to the diamondback moth and the two-spotted spider mite, that is, it is also an autosomal incomplete recessive inheritance. In addition, it was found that the populations of Liriomyza versicolor, diamondback moth and German cockroach were resistant to abamectin.|
|toxicity||the acute oral LD50 of CF mice is 13.6-23.8mg/kg, that of CRCD mice is 10.6-11.3mg/kg, and that of CRCD newborn rats is 1.52mg/kg. The minimum dose of the effect is: CR, CD neonatal rats 0.12mg/kg per day, CRCD rats 2.0mg/kg per day, Beagle dogs 0.5mg/kg per day, monkey 2.0mg/kg daily. Rabbit acute percutaneous LD50>2000mg/kg. Rats were continuously administered for 8 weeks, and mice were continuously administered for 94 weeks. The non-effective dose was 4 mg/kg per day, and the non-effective dose was 2 mg/kg in rats fed for 2 years. Teratogenic toxicity showed that maternal toxicity had no effect on the dose of 0.05mg/kg in rats, 1.6mg/kg in mice. Ames test showed that there was no genetic toxicity and no carcinogenic effect. The LC50 of trout was 3.2 μg/L, the LC50 of carp was 4.2 μg/L, the LC50 of daphnia was 0.34 μg/L, and the LD50 of diphtheria quails was 2000mg/kg, acute oral LD50 of wild duck was 86.4mg/kg. The oral LD50 of bees was 0.009 μg/only, and the contact LD50 was 0.002 μg/only.|
|Chemical properties||The appearance was light yellow to white crystalline powder and tasteless. m.p.155 ~ 157 °c, vapor pressure 2 x 10-7pa, relative density of 1.16(21 °c). Solubility at 21 ℃: toluene 350g/L, acetone 100g/L, isopropanol 70g/L, chloroform 25g/L, ethanol 20g/L, methanol 19.5g/L, cyclohexane 6g/L, kerosene 0.5g/L, water 10g/L. The distribution coefficient was 9.9 × 103. Stable under normal conditions, pH 5~9 will not be hydrolyzed.|
|purpose||a sixteen-membered macrocyclic lactone with strong insecticidal, acaricidal and nematicidal activities, and a dual-purpose agricultural and livestock antibiotic. Broad-spectrum, efficient and safe. With stomach poisoning and contact killing effect, can not kill the egg. Its mechanism of action is to interfere with the physiological activity of the nerve, affecting the cell membrane chloride conduction, and the amino acid is its site of action. When the agent stimulates the site of action, it blocks the transmission process of motor nerve information, so that the signal of the central nervous system of the pest is continuously accepted by the motor neuron, and the pest is rapidly paralyzed within a few hours, slow or immobile, because it does not cause rapid dehydration of insects, so the lethal effect is slow, generally after 24d death. For the prevention and control of vegetables, fruit trees and other crops on the diamondback moth, cabbage, armyworm, skip a variety of pests, especially for other pesticides resistant pests is particularly effective. For vegetable pests per hectare dosage of 10~20g, control effect of more than 90%; For the control of citrus rust mites per hectare 13.5~54g, residual effect of up to 4 weeks (if mixed with mineral oil, the dosage was reduced to 13.5~27g, the residual effect period was extended to 16 weeks); The control of cotton cinnabar spider mite, tobacco armyworm, cotton bollworm and cotton aphid had good control effect. In addition, it can also be used for the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in cattle, such as cow lice, tiny cow ticks, cow foot mites, etc., for the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, the dosage is 0.2mg/kg body weight.|
|purpose||it can kill nematodes, insects and mites, and is used to treat nematode, mite and parasitic insect diseases in livestock and poultry|
|purpose||of citrus, vegetables, cotton, apple, tobacco, soybean, tea and other crop pests have better control effect and delay resistance|
|purpose||used for the prevention and control of various pests and mites on vegetables, fruit trees and cotton|
|purpose||Properties: white to yellow-white crystalline powder. Odorless, slightly soluble in water, soluble in toluene use: biochemical research. Prevention and Control of crop pests and diseases|
|production method|| producing bacteria were produced by Streptomyces avermitil s. It is a new species of Streptomyces and belongs to the genus Streptomyces griseus (similar to the production of melbeycin, Streptomyces hygroscopicus).
The morphology is aerial hyphal branching, and spores generally appear on oat agar, glycerol, asparagus, inorganic salts, starch and egg white agar. By electron microscopy, the spore filaments began to be tightly spiral, and the later gradually released. Spore chain on the spore generally more than 15, round to oval, smooth surface.
The selection of strains is very important, different strains of Avermectin make the content of each component of the fermentation broth different, the selection of new high-yield strains not only improve the total unit of Avermectin, the proportion of the B1 component was also significantly increased.
Preservation of bacteria Avermectin-producing bacteria were grown on YMS slant (yeast extract 4.0g, wort 10.0g, soluble starch 4.0g, agar 20.0g, water 7.4 ml, pH =), the spores were then placed in a 20% aqueous solution of glycerol and stored at -30 °c.
Two media are generally used for seed preparation. The composition in 1000ml of water is as follows.
A:Cerelose 1.0g, soluble starch 10.0g, beef extract 3.0g, Ardamine PH 5.0g, N-Z-Amine E 5.0g, MgSO4 · 7H2O 0.05g, KH2PO4 0.182g, Na2HPO4 0.190g, caCO3 0.5g, pH = 7.0.
B: lactose 20.0g, discler s' solutions 15g, Ardamine PH 5.0g, pH = 7.0. The glycerol spore stock solution was inoculated into the seed culture medium, cultured at 28 ° c. For 1 to 2 days, and then inoculated into the fermentation medium. The inoculation amount is usually 3% ~ 5%.
Biosynthesis biosynthesis the following fermentation media can be used.
A:Amidax 40g, distiller s' Solubles 7g, Ardamine PH 5g, CoCl2 · 6H2O 0.05g, water 7.3, pH =.
B:Cerelose 45g, prolionlzed milk nutrient 24g, Ardamine PH 2.5g, polyethylene glycol P-2000 2.5mL, water 7.0 mL,pH =.
Studies have shown that the production of Avermectin is related to the following factors: 1. Strain selection can not only improve the fermentation unit produced by microorganisms, but also change the ratio of each component, thereby increasing the required component content, addition of methyltransferase inhibitors such as Slnefungin and S-adenosyl methione can also change the ratio of B and A in the product; Strain morphology should be selected for fermentation with full mycelia (P.A. The medium used by McCann was dextrin 0.4%, meat extract 1%, yeast 0.4%, agar 2%,pH = 7.0). C/N ratio. It has great influence on the yield and composition. ③ antifoaming agent. Polyethylene glycol is a good antifoaming agent, which can not only increase the fermentation unit, but also inhibit the production of an orange wax during fermentation. (4) stirring. It has a great influence on the fermentation effect. Because the mycelium is sensitive to the impeller shear, the hydrofoil type stirring device can improve the oxygen supply and increase the yield. (5) inorganic salts. Other inorganic salts had no beneficial effect on the fermentation.
|toxicity grade||highly toxic|
|Acute toxicity||oral-rat LD50: 10 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50: 13.6 mg/kg|
|storage and transportation characteristics||warehouse ventilation low temperature drying; Separate storage and transportation from food raw materials|
|extinguishing agent||dry powder, foam, sand|